Companies that do not recycle, increase contamination levels. Those who increase contamination levels should be involved in environmental protection activity. Companies that do not recycle should be involved in environmental protection activities.
Recycling is generally regarded as an important and inevitable part of environmental protection, as well as the saving of natural resources. The constantly increasing population of the planet requires an increasing amount of products, energy, and food. Hence, recycling is one of the most important aspects of humanity’s survival. Regardless of the increased expenses of the recycling process in comparison with producing energy from rough resources, this is the only way to save the natural resources of the planet and avoid the energetic crisis. Recycling is also intended for decreasing the amount of toxic and industrial wastes that may seriously violate the biological balance, and cause biosphere contamination. If companies do not implement recycling technologies, governments should forcibly make them utilize toxic wastes properly, and use alternative sources of fuel. If companies refuse to use alternative sources, they should be involved in environmental protection activity by recycling industrial wastes and renewing natural resources.
Considering the fact that ecological problems are becoming increasingly serious, recycling is the obligatory stage of industrial manufacturing. Some states have already implemented the necessary legislation for developing recycling practices. Nevertheless, the best stimulant for recycling development should be closely linked with fining and encouraging companies to implement recycling technologies. Hence, the main aspect of recycling development and implementation of the closed manufacturing cycle.
The recyclable materials provide numerous opportunities for recycling. In general, it is stated that recycling is more expensive then utilization, hence companies prefer utilization instead of recycling. (Curlee, 175) This should be the basis of fining system: the companies should be fined with the larger sums than they are able to save by avoiding recycling and implementing the closed manufacturing cycles. As it is stated by Folz (2004, 336), the materials which may be recycled involve glass, paper, tin and other metals, as well as plastic and textiles (mainly synthetic).
Additionally, the legislation measures should be linked with imposing restrictions and embargo, as the ecological problems are increasing constantly. The necessity to implement the recycling technologies should be legally confirmed, and the organizations that to not observe legislative norms should be legally obliged perform the proper utilization of toxic wastes.
Developing the renewable resources technology, as well as implementing these technologies into various manufacturing processes require additional investment. On the one hand, companies and industrial groups should be interested in purchasing and implementing these technologies, on the other hand, they should be stimulated by governments and world organizations to implement them. Nevertheless, there are thousands of industrial objects that are not willing to implement the closed cycle manufacturing, regardless of the fine sizes. The solution of this problem should be linked with obliging them to implement the alternative fuel consumption technologies, and using renewable sources. This obligation will stimulate the companies avoid fines by implementing the ecologically safer technologies, and provide the sufficient developing engine for the renewable resources and technologies. As for the legislative background of these practices, it should be stated that international legislative experience should be considered. Lounsbury (29) gave the following clarifications on this aspect:
The final government regulation towards increased demand is recycled product labeling. When producers are required to label their packaging with amount of recycled material in the product (including the packaging), consumers are better able to make educated choices. Standardized recycling labeling can also have a positive effect on supply of recyclates if the labeling includes information on how and where the product can be recycled.
In the light of this statement, it should be emphasized that the governmental measures should not be restricted by fines only. If consuming ability is regarded as a powerful tool for controlling the activity of a company, the government should influence this parameter directly. In fact, economic fining may not be a fully effective tool, while social propaganda may be regarded as a consuming fine for any company. Consequently, this may be used for stimulating companies invest the R & D for renewable sources and implementation of the closed cycle technologies into the manufacturing process.
Renewal of Natural Resouces
The renewable sources should be renewed constantly in order to avoid various disasters associated with the increased consumption levels. Considering the fact that the renewable resources such as timber and carbohydrates (such as peat) are renewed slowly, while solar energy, wind and wave (ocean) energy are regarded as constantly renewable, the companies should be encouraged to use these sources as the main energy source. Additionally, the companies that are fined for consumption should be obliged to care of the renewal of the resources. The alternatives are as follows: planting energetic forests, forestation of the polluted regions and cleanup of water resources. These measures will either stimulate companies decrease the amounts of industrial wastes, or promote the development of renewal technologies.
In spite of the losses that companies will experience by participating in the renewal processes, the developing of these technologies is featured with the decreasing costs of recycling, renewal and using the alternative energy sources. Hence, the companies should be either explained that the investment and renewal will be compensated, or oblige the companies implement participate in renewal forcibly. (Folz, 2001, 225)
The international experience of sources renewal claims that these processes are required for saving the biodiversity and balance of species, as violation of these parameters will inevitably cause the ecologic disaster, while the scales of this disaster may be immense. Considering the fact that legislation is mainly restricted to fining or imposing embargoes, obligation to invest the technology development and research activities associated with renewing energy sources, the ecologic problem solution will reach the high level. (Zimring, 35)
The environmental protection techniques that are described in this paper are closely associated with encouraging companies develop and implement the recycling technologies, as these are the inevitable measures needed for avoiding the energy consumption crisis, as well as improving the environmental protection techniques. Considering the fact that companies experience losses while resorting to recycling, the fines should be proportionally higher in comparison with these losses. Additionally, companies should be explained that these technologies are compensated in the long-term perspective, while the fines are not, and the companies will be obliged to resort to consuming renewable and alternative sources of energy and fuel. This will ensure that the finances spent for research and development goes to a meaningful use. In long run, the operational costs will decrease by adopting environmental protection measures such as recycling of waste materials rather than producing new ones.
Curlee, T. Randall. The Economic Feasibility of Recycling: A Case Study of Plastic Wastes. New York: Praeger, 2002.
Folz, David H. “Municipal Recycling Performance: A Public Sector Environmental Success Story.” Public Administration Review 59.4 (2004): 336.
Folz, David H. “Recycling Program Design, Management, and Participation: A National Survey of Municipal Experience.” Public Administration Review 51.3 (2001): 222-231.
Lounsbury, Michael. “Institutional Sources of Practice Variation: Staffing College and University Recycling Programs.” Administrative Science Quarterly 46.1 (2001): 29.
Zimring, Carl A. Cash for Your Trash: Scrap Recycling in America. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2005.