Prophylaxis Breast Cancer


Breast cancer is an enormous healthcare issue and is the leading type of cancer among women. It occurs because of various complex determinants: stress tendencies, harmful habits, genetics, obesity, among others. Researching the problem is a necessary step in defining the early stages of the illness and later curing it. This paper examines the majority of the parts in detail and considers every risk linked to the development of this dangerous disease.

Main body

First of all, the biometrical risk factors of breast cancer need to be discussed. Biometrical risk factors are a specific state of one’s body that can lead to certain diseases (Akram et al., 2017). In the case of 45-year-old Jade, it is an excessive weight of her body. Obesity, as a biometrical danger factor, is directly linked to breast cancer, as it enhances the risk of developing such an illness (Sun et al., 2017). Treating a possible factor requires immediate changes in one’s lifestyle, including losing excessive amounts of weight in Jade’s case. This can be achieved by changing her diet as well as increasing her physical activity.

Behavioral determinants include the personal behavior of an individual that could have led to the disease. In cases of breast cancer, such determinants include bad habits such as substance abuse (drugs, alcohol, cigarettes), an unhealthy diet, and a lack of physical activity (Michailidou et al., 2017). Similar rick factors of any illness are preventable, and in Jade’s circumstances, she could have limited her intake of alcohol and cigarettes in her twenties to prevent cancer from developing. Her lifestyle during her youth has caused significant health issues. Moreover, as the case suggests, she is overweight, which means that she either has bad genetics or poor dietary exposures to nutrients and low physical activity (Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer, 2002). Healthy lifestyle choices could have prevented the possibility of breast cancer in this scenario. However, as one can observe, health is not a simple issue and can consist of a variety of health determinants.

Moreover, in popular studies, high alcohol intake incidents are directly linked to the development of several major health issues. Each alcoholic drink that Jade took throughout her youth has been expediting her breast cancer development (Branley, 2015). Alcohol beverages increase the possibility of developing cancer, making it higher. Still, in the case of women, it almost guarantees the advancement of breast corruption in older age, as one can observe in Jade’s case. According to the research, her amount of drinks per day increased her chances of getting the illness by 200% (Ghoncheh et al., 2016). Moreover, there is a distinct connection between alcohol intake and the mortality rate among breast cancer patients, which is why people are highly discouraged from drinking while having such an illness.

Speaking about tobacco intake, it is also linked to the enhancing of the risks. Ten cigarettes per day in the case of Jade could have increased her chances. Furthermore, passive smoking is also harmful and can potentially boost the risk of developing breast cancer. While first-hand smoking enhances the percentage for about 200%, secondhand smoking can also contribute to the 70% of enhancement (Ghoncheh et al., 2016). Therefore, one can make an assumption that both firsthand and secondhand smoking are similarly harmful for the health.

Social determinants include the status of the patient, their economic abilities, and sometimes race. The chance of dying in the scenario of Jade solely depends on her social standing and wealth. Money can increase her chances of beating cancer, especially at the early stages of its development. In Australia, the fatal cases of breast cancer are lower depending on the person’s status and wealth, because poor people have fewer opportunities to go to the doctor (Ho-Huynh et al., 2019). As Karimi et al. (2018) suggest, sometimes the rate of survival also depends on the race. As estimated, black women have a higher chance of dying from breast cancer, while white women have a bigger chance of developing the illness.

People have related the strange racial pattern to many disparities such as inadequate access to screening, less available surgeries and medical procedures, or even the biological characteristics. Consequently, every patient needs to have equal access to medical treatment, and there has to be more diversity in clinical trials. Furthermore, other social determinants include the availability of essentials such as education, salary, and access to healthy food (Karimi et al., 2018). In the research, Jade has been living with her son in the suburbs, suggesting that she does not have a high income and has fewer opportunities to buy healthier foods. Therefore, her risk factor for dying from the disease can increase, which is why medicine should be available to everyone; it can save countless lives.

Other social determinants include social support, exposure to the media, transportation options, and public safety. Speaking of social support in Jade’s case, she does not have enough of it, whis is exposing her to stress. Her son is the only person she contacts, and as a mother, she has to support him, forgetting about herself. If Jade lacks friends, that means she does not have moral support, and the appearance of breast cancer can destroy her. Concerning the media, every person has at least some media exposure, as it is normalized (Victoria State Government, 2019). Therefore, by watching television and scrolling through social networks, the woman adds another layer of stress onto her that can be fatal (Waks & Winer, 2019). To help her live through the nightmare of countless chemical therapy sessions, the woman desperately needs some psychological support, which should also be given to her for free.

Furthermore, the environmental determinants that influence breast cancer’s appearance include exposure to different microbes, toxins, radiation, etcetera. The exposure to the toxic elements in the air can be partially fixed by the policymakers and the acceptance of new laws regulating toxins’ disposure by the big companies (Hiatt & Brody, 2018). Although radiation levels have been decreasing throughout the last decades, the new war can increase them and enhance the number of people bearing the burden of breast cancer.


To conclude, breast cancer has a lot of complex determinants that influence its development and the mortality from the illness. It is a significant healthcare issue that destroys the lives of women worldwide. It can occur because of the lack of social support, environmental issues (such as exposure to the radiation and toxins), the absence of a healthy lifestyle. Sometimes the cancer is preventable (as in the case of Jade), but sometimes it can be hereditary, that is why it is essential to monitor the children’s health. Moreover, it is also necessary to have less exposure to bad habits, which can significantly reduce one’s chances of developing breast cancer later in life. A healthy lifestyle can be a determinant of healthier bodies and, as a consequence, less cancer.


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