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Critical Issues in Tourism


Globalization is a term that is widely used in the in-depth study of tourism trends. Globalization is usually driven by a combination of political, economic, biological, socio-cultural, and technological factors. It enables countries to share and circulate different ideas, cultures, and languages. The effects of globalization in people traveling and staying in other places for leisure, recreation, business, or other activities for a period less than one consecutive year have been progressive over the years as there has been an intensified geographical linkage by industry stakeholders in different regions.

All research papers are written with one clear objective in the mind, to come up with research questions that will help it test a given hypothesis. In its investigation of the effects of globalization on the entire tourism sector, this study seeks to investigate the application of the effects of globalization in the solving of the inherent challenges that are crippling the tourism sector in different geographical regions. It seeks to identify how globalization has affected the tourism sector in general and its contribution to the detriment or promotion of the sector. This study takes a geographical approach with an emphasis on the sharing of issues between different regions.

Questions and hypotheses to be tested

This research will seek to answer the following research questions:

  1. Has the existence of political, cultural, and economic network connections in the world diluted the originality of tourism destinations?
  2. Has the increased regionalization of states promoted the diversification of products in specific states?
  3. How has globalization strengthened the impact of events between different tourism sectors?
  4. How has globalization served to develop new products and open up different tourism markets?

By its completion, the paper will test its hypothesis by providing tangible evidence to the following issues.

  1. How has diversification among states served to destroy the uniqueness of specific tourism destinations?
  2. Does the current diversification of products by the stakeholders in the tourism industry been informed by the regionalization of states?
  3. Which aspects of globalization have served to increase the impact of events that happen in one part of the world making it a global phenomenon, hence affecting the tourism sector in general?
  4. Which of the components of globalization has been applied by industry stakeholders in the development of new tourism products and markets?

Rationale and Significance of the Study

This research will be of invaluable help to the larger tourism industry. Cornelissen, (2005), focuses on international tourism concerning its political economy and the impact of globalization. The author also assesses the impact of the global system of trade, exchange of ideas, governance, and production-related to international tourism in developing countries. She also identifies the possibilities and limitations of international tourisms as presented by globalization especially in these developing countries as well as the nature and context of consumption, regulations, and production in global tourism.

Tourism has greatly influenced and shaped human and physical environments, just as much as it has been influenced by the same environments, (Shaw & Williams, 2002). This makes globalization a process that has to be explored, rather than ignored in the quest to explain the rapid changes that are inherent in the tourism and leisure sectors. Globalization has fuelled the emergence of unrestricted markets, industry values, and behavior as well as global organizations that promote and regulate different sectors. This has boosted the tourism sector as technological developments have enabled people to make bookings freely, effectively, and cheaply in the shortest time possible. There has also been the development of global tourism as there has been the opening up of free markets such as in East Asia and China.

Design of the Study

This study will employ a survey research design that is usually effective in obtaining information that is related to the thoughts, opinions, and feelings of different stakeholders in the subject matter. It is especially suitable where the population being studied is relatively large and the phenomena under investigation can openly be observed. It is also cheap in case the information is easily accessible when compared to other research designs.

The targeted population is mainly drawn from tourism stakeholders such as hotel and tour employees, investors, administrators, and also different government and state regulators. The target population’s rights and privileges will carefully be considered during the study, as well as their anonymity.

The study will mainly use primary data that is close-ended. It will also use a Likert scaled questionnaire that will be administered to the hotel and tour employees, investors, administrators as well as different government and state regulators with a view of collecting the desired data. This will be done through self-administration coupled with a face-to-face interview given to respondents in cases where explanations are required.

The data collected will be analyzed by the use of mean, mode, and median. The hypothesis will be tested using a T-test, which is commonly used when comparing statistical data models that have been fitted to a data set to identify the model that best fits the population from which the data was sampled. Any other method of measurement that may prove helpful may also be adopted.

The analyzed data will be presented using tables, graphs, and charts. These methods are seen as appropriate to represent the acquired information from the field so that it can be well understood. The identified graphical representations of information will greatly aid in the process of establishing the extent of the issue under review and thus help in generating better intervention policies. The whole research process is estimated to take about 12 weeks.

Research Benefits

This research will greatly benefit the stakeholders in the tourism industry to embrace globalization and share their strengths and weaknesses with other stakeholders all over the globe. In its geographical perspective, tourism is quite specific and what some sectors may be having challenges with can probably be solved by others in another sector. This can be done either through the sharing of technology, market ideas, or the reduction of trade barriers to reduce operational costs hence allowing further investments and diversification. Therefore, stakeholders must learn to share not only in solving their problems through the integration of processes, but also to discover more from each other and diversify their products and markets. This will enhance the growth of the tourism industry and other related sectors by broadening the available market as well as opening avenues for exports and imports. It is, therefore, imperative that all stakeholders in the tourism industry realize that geographical barriers will only serve to limit the growth of the tourism sector. The conclusion deduced will also help in the process of improving various aspects of tourism that have remained pertinent especially in the boosting of the positive perceptions of the tourists.


  1. Cornelissen, S. (2005). The global tourism system: governance, development, and lessons from South Africa. New directions in tourism analysis. New York: Ashgate Publishing.
  2. Shaw, G., and Williams, A., M. (2002). Critical issues in tourism: a geographical perspective. IBG Studies in geography. New York: Wiley-Blackwell.

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